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Golang实现非常好用的第三方库(一)

KunkkaWu
2023-03-09 / 0 评论 / 2 点赞 / 4,643 阅读 / 3,472 字 / 正在检测是否收录...

1. fasthttp

GoDoc Go Report
image

示例

// net/http code

m := &http.ServeMux{}
m.HandleFunc("/foo", fooHandlerFunc)
m.HandleFunc("/bar", barHandlerFunc)
m.Handle("/baz", bazHandler)

http.ListenAndServe(":80", m)
// the corresponding fasthttp code
m := func(ctx *fasthttp.RequestCtx) {
    switch string(ctx.Path()) {
    case "/foo":
        fooHandlerFunc(ctx)
    case "/bar":
        barHandlerFunc(ctx)
    case "/baz":
        bazHandler.HandlerFunc(ctx)
    default:
        ctx.Error("not found", fasthttp.StatusNotFound)
    }
}

fasthttp.ListenAndServe(":80", m)

2. concurrent map

Build Status

正如 这里这里所描述的, Go语言原生的map类型并不支持并发读写。concurrent-map提供了一种高性能的解决方案:通过对内部map进行分片,降低锁粒度,从而达到最少的锁等待时间(锁冲突)

在Go 1.9之前,go语言标准库中并没有实现并发map。在Go 1.9中,引入了sync.Map。新的sync.Map与此concurrent-map有几个关键区别。标准库中的sync.Map是专为append-only场景设计的。因此,如果您想将Map用于一个类似内存数据库,那么使用我们的版本可能会受益。你可以在golang repo上读到更多,这里 and 这里

***译注:`sync.Map`在读多写少性能比较好,否则并发性能很差***

示例


    // 创建一个新的 map.
    m := cmap.New()

    // 设置变量m一个键为“foo”值为“bar”键值对
    m.Set("foo", "bar")

    // 从m中获取指定键值.
    if tmp, ok := m.Get("foo"); ok {
        bar := tmp.(string)
    }

    // 删除键为“foo”的项
    m.Remove("foo")

3. lockfree

性能对比

整体上来看,Disruptor(lockfree)在写入和读取上的性能大概都在channel的7倍以上,数据写入的越多,性能提升越明显。 下面是buffer=1024*1024时,写入数据的耗时对比:

image

4. GoDS (Go Data Structures)

GoDoc Build Status Go Report Card codecov Sourcegraph Release Quality Gate Status PyPI

支持数据结构列表

Data Structure Ordered Iterator Enumerable Referenced by
Lists
ArrayList yes yes* yes index
SinglyLinkedList yes yes yes index
DoublyLinkedList yes yes* yes index
Sets
HashSet no no no index
TreeSet yes yes* yes index
LinkedHashSet yes yes* yes index
Stacks
LinkedListStack yes yes no index
ArrayStack yes yes* no index
Maps
HashMap no no no key
TreeMap yes yes* yes key
LinkedHashMap yes yes* yes key
HashBidiMap no no no key*
TreeBidiMap yes yes* yes key*
Trees
RedBlackTree yes yes* no key
AVLTree yes yes* no key
BTree yes yes* no key
BinaryHeap yes yes* no index
Queues
LinkedListQueue yes yes no index
ArrayQueue yes yes* no index
CircularBuffer yes yes* no index
PriorityQueue yes yes* no index
*reversible *bidirectional

5. Gin Web Framework

Build Status codecov Go Report Card GoDoc Join the chat at https://gitter.im/gin-gonic/gin Sourcegraph Open Source Helpers Release

Gin是一个用Go编写的web框架。由于httprouter,它具有类似马提尼的API,性能提高了40倍。如果你需要高性能和高生产力,你会喜欢Gin。

示例

package main

import (
  "net/http"

  "github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
)

func main() {
  r := gin.Default()
  r.GET("/ping", func(c *gin.Context) {
    c.JSON(http.StatusOK, gin.H{
      "message": "pong",
    })
  })
  r.Run() // listen and serve on 0.0.0.0:8080 (for windows "localhost:8080")
}

6. cron 定时器

GoDoc Build Status

示例

c := cron.New()
c.AddFunc("0 30 * * * *", func() { fmt.Println("Every hour on the half hour") })
c.AddFunc("@hourly",      func() { fmt.Println("Every hour") })
c.AddFunc("@every 1h30m", func() { fmt.Println("Every hour thirty") })
c.Start()
..
// Funcs are invoked in their own goroutine, asynchronously.
...
// Funcs may also be added to a running Cron
c.AddFunc("@daily", func() { fmt.Println("Every day") })
..
// Inspect the cron job entries' next and previous run times.
inspect(c.Entries())
..
c.Stop()  // Stop the scheduler (does not stop any jobs already running).

7. golang-set

example workflow Go Report Card GoDoc

示例

// Syntax example, doesn't compile.
mySet := mapset.NewSet[T]() // where T is some concrete comparable type.

// Therefore this code creates an int set
mySet := mapset.NewSet[int]()

// Or perhaps you want a string set
mySet := mapset.NewSet[string]()

type myStruct {
  name string
  age uint8
}

// Alternatively a set of structs
mySet := mapset.NewSet[myStruct]()

// Lastly a set that can hold anything using the any or empty interface keyword: interface{}. This is effectively removes type safety.
mySet := mapset.NewSet[any]()
package main

import (
  "fmt"
  mapset "github.com/deckarep/golang-set/v2"
)

func main() {
  // Create a string-based set of required classes.
  required := mapset.NewSet[string]()
  required.Add("cooking")
  required.Add("english")
  required.Add("math")
  required.Add("biology")

  // Create a string-based set of science classes.
  sciences := mapset.NewSet[string]()
  sciences.Add("biology")
  sciences.Add("chemistry")
  
  // Create a string-based set of electives.
  electives := mapset.NewSet[string]()
  electives.Add("welding")
  electives.Add("music")
  electives.Add("automotive")

  // Create a string-based set of bonus programming classes.
  bonus := mapset.NewSet[string]()
  bonus.Add("beginner go")
  bonus.Add("python for dummies")
}

8. Bloom filters 布隆过滤器

Test Go Report Card Go Reference

Bloom过滤器是集合的简洁/压缩表示,其中主要要求是进行成员查询;即项目是否是集合的成员。当元素确实存在时,Bloom过滤器将始终正确地报告集合中元素的存在。Bloom过滤器可以使用比原始集合少得多的存储空间,但它允许一些“误报”:它有时可能会报告某个元素在集合中,而不是在集合中。

当你构建时,你需要知道你有多少元素(期望的容量),以及你愿意容忍的期望假阳性率是多少。常见的假阳性率为1%。假阳性率越低,需要的内存就越多。同样,容量越高,使用的内存就越多。您可以按照以下方式构造Bloom过滤器,该过滤器能够接收100万个元素,误报率为1%。

示例

    filter := bloom.NewWithEstimates(1000000, 0.01) 
    
    // to add a string item, "Love"
    filter.Add([]byte("Love"))
    
    // Similarly, to test if "Love" is in bloom:
    if filter.Test([]byte("Love"))
    
    // to add a uint32 to the filter
    i := uint32(100)
    n1 := make([]byte, 4)
    binary.BigEndian.PutUint32(n1, i)
    filter.Add(n1)

9. GCache

golang的缓存库。它支持可擦除缓存、LFU、LRU和ARC。

特性

  • 支持可擦除缓存、LFU、LRU和ARC
  • 协程安全
  • 支持驱逐、清除和添加条目的事件处理程序 (可选)
  • 缓存不存在的时候自动加载缓存 (可选)

示例

package main

import (
  "github.com/bluele/gcache"
  "fmt"
)

func main() {
  gc := gcache.New(20).
    LRU().
    Build()
  gc.Set("key", "ok")
  value, err := gc.Get("key")
  if err != nil {
    panic(err)
  }
  fmt.Println("Get:", value)
}

10. ledis(go版本的redis)

Build Status codecov goreportcard

Ledisdb是一个用Go编写的高性能NoSQL数据库库和服务器。它类似于Redis,但将数据存储在磁盘中。它支持许多数据结构,包括kv、list、hash、zset、set。

LedisDB现在支持多个不同的数据库作为后端。

示例

import (
    lediscfg "github.com/ledisdb/ledisdb/config"
    "github.com/ledisdb/ledisdb/ledis"
)

// Use Ledis's default config
cfg := lediscfg.NewConfigDefault()
l, _ := ledis.Open(cfg)
db, _ := l.Select(0)

db.Set(key, value)

db.Get(key)

11. uuid生成器

uuid包基于RFC 4122和DCE 1.1:身份验证和安全服务生成和检查uuid。

此包基于 github.com/pboman/uuid包(以前名为code.google.com/p/go-uuid)。它与这些早期包的不同之处在于uuid是一个16字节数组,而不是一个字节片。此更改导致的一个损失是表示无效UUID(与NIL UUID相比)的能力。

示例


package uuid

import (
    "fmt"
    "testing"

    "github.com/google/uuid"
)

func TestUuid(t *testing.T) {
    for i := 0; i <= 10; i++ {
        uuid, _ := uuid.NewUUID()
        fmt.Println(uuid)
    }
}

结果

=== RUN   TestUuid
709096ca-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909d5a-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909d6e-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909d78-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909d8c-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909d96-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909da0-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909db4-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909dbe-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909dc8-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
70909dd2-bcb5-11ed-b598-acde48001122
--- PASS: TestUuid (0.00s)
PASS

12. Redigo

GoDoc

Redigo是Redis数据库的Go客户端。

示例

package main

import (
    "os"

    "github.com/gomodule/redigo/redis"
)

func main() {
    c, err := redis.DialURL(os.Getenv("REDIS_URL"))
    if err != nil {
        // handle connection error
    }
    defer c.Close()
} 

13. gRPC-Go

GoReportCard

示例

Follow these setup to run the quick start example:

  1. Get the code:

    $ go get google.golang.org/grpc/examples/helloworld/greeter_client
    $ go get google.golang.org/grpc/examples/helloworld/greeter_server
    
  2. Run the server:

    $ $(go env GOPATH)/bin/greeter_server &
    
  3. Run the client:

    $ $(go env GOPATH)/bin/greeter_client
    Greeting: Hello world
    

14. Viper配置解析

GitHub Workflow Status Join the chat at https://gitter.im/spf13/viper Go Report Card Go Version PkgGoDev

image

Viper需要最少的配置,因此它知道在哪里查找配置文件。Viper支持JSON、TOML、YAML、HCL、INI、envfile和Java财产文件。Viper可以搜索多个路径,但目前单个Viper实例仅支持单个配置文件。Viper不默认任何配置搜索路径,将默认决策留给应用程序。

示例

viper.SetConfigName("config") // name of config file (without extension)
viper.SetConfigType("yaml") // REQUIRED if the config file does not have the extension in the name
viper.AddConfigPath("/etc/appname/")   // path to look for the config file in
viper.AddConfigPath("$HOME/.appname")  // call multiple times to add many search paths
viper.AddConfigPath(".")               // optionally look for config in the working directory
err := viper.ReadInConfig() // Find and read the config file
if err != nil { // Handle errors reading the config file
    panic(fmt.Errorf("fatal error config file: %w", err))
}

15. TPC并发服务器框架

image

Based on Golang Lightweight TCP Concurrent server framework(基于Golang轻量级TCP并发服务器框架).

快速启动

# clone from git
$ git clone https://github.com/aceld/zinx.git

# cd the dir of Demo
$ cd ./zinx/examples/zinx_server

# Build
$ make build

# Build for docker image
$ make image

# start and run
$ make run 

# cd the dir of Demo Client
$ cd ../zinx_client

# run 
$ go run main.go 

服务端

func main() {
    //1 Create the server object
    s := znet.NewServer()

    //2 Configure user-defined routes and services
    s.AddRouter(0, &PingRouter{})

    //3 Start the service
    s.Serve()
}

16. 时间工具

go report card test status MIT license

示例

import "github.com/jinzhu/now"

time.Now() // 2013-11-18 17:51:49.123456789 Mon

now.BeginningOfMinute()        // 2013-11-18 17:51:00 Mon
now.BeginningOfHour()          // 2013-11-18 17:00:00 Mon
now.BeginningOfDay()           // 2013-11-18 00:00:00 Mon
now.BeginningOfWeek()          // 2013-11-17 00:00:00 Sun
now.BeginningOfMonth()         // 2013-11-01 00:00:00 Fri
now.BeginningOfQuarter()       // 2013-10-01 00:00:00 Tue
now.BeginningOfYear()          // 2013-01-01 00:00:00 Tue

now.EndOfMinute()              // 2013-11-18 17:51:59.999999999 Mon
now.EndOfHour()                // 2013-11-18 17:59:59.999999999 Mon
now.EndOfDay()                 // 2013-11-18 23:59:59.999999999 Mon
now.EndOfWeek()                // 2013-11-23 23:59:59.999999999 Sat
now.EndOfMonth()               // 2013-11-30 23:59:59.999999999 Sat
now.EndOfQuarter()             // 2013-12-31 23:59:59.999999999 Tue
now.EndOfYear()                // 2013-12-31 23:59:59.999999999 Tue

now.WeekStartDay = time.Monday // Set Monday as first day, default is Sunday
now.EndOfWeek()                // 2013-11-24 23:59:59.999999999 Sun
location, err := time.LoadLocation("Asia/Shanghai")

myConfig := &now.Config{
	WeekStartDay: time.Monday,
	TimeLocation: location,
	TimeFormats: []string{"2006-01-02 15:04:05"},
}

t := time.Date(2013, 11, 18, 17, 51, 49, 123456789, time.Now().Location()) // // 2013-11-18 17:51:49.123456789 Mon
myConfig.With(t).BeginningOfWeek()         // 2013-11-18 00:00:00 Mon

myConfig.Parse("2002-10-12 22:14:01")     // 2002-10-12 22:14:01
myConfig.Parse("2002-10-12 22:14")        // returns error 'can't parse string as time: 2002-10-12 22:14'

17. json-iterator

Sourcegraph GoDoc Build Status codecov rcard License Gitter chat

image

高性能100%兼容的替换“encoding/json”

ns/op allocation bytes allocation times
std decode 35510 ns/op 1960 B/op 99 allocs/op
easyjson decode 8499 ns/op 160 B/op 4 allocs/op
jsoniter decode 5623 ns/op 160 B/op 3 allocs/op
std encode 2213 ns/op 712 B/op 5 allocs/op
easyjson encode 883 ns/op 576 B/op 3 allocs/op
jsoniter encode 837 ns/op 384 B/op 4 allocs/op

示例

100% 与标准lib的兼容性

Replace

import "encoding/json"
json.Marshal(&data)

with

import jsoniter "github.com/json-iterator/go"

var json = jsoniter.ConfigCompatibleWithStandardLibrary
json.Marshal(&data)

Replace

import "encoding/json"
json.Unmarshal(input, &data)

with

import jsoniter "github.com/json-iterator/go"

var json = jsoniter.ConfigCompatibleWithStandardLibrary
json.Unmarshal(input, &data)

18. zap 日志

基于Golang实现的 高性能,结构化,分等级的日志库

示例

logger, _ := zap.NewProduction()
defer logger.Sync()
logger.Info("failed to fetch URL",
  // Structured context as strongly typed Field values.
  zap.String("url", url),
  zap.Int("attempt", 3),
  zap.Duration("backoff", time.Second),
)

19. color 打印输出

PkgGoDev

image

示例

// Print with default helper functions
color.Cyan("Prints text in cyan.")

// A newline will be appended automatically
color.Blue("Prints %s in blue.", "text")

// These are using the default foreground colors
color.Red("We have red")
color.Magenta("And many others ..")

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